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Full text of "Annual announcement of the Dental School of Harvard University"

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^NN-y!8|fcr?^NOUNCEMENT 




DKNTAL SCHOOL 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



1893—94. 







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PUBLISHED BY 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



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ANNUAL ANNOUNCEMENT 



DKNTAL SCHOOL 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



1893—94:. 




PUBLISHED BY 

Ibarvart) IHniversiti?, 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



\ 



1893. 


1894.. 


JULY. 


JANUARY. 


JULY. 


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OCTOBER. 


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L 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL, 

BOSTON. 



The Dental Department of the University is established in Boston, 
in order to secure in connection with the Medical Department those 
advantages for Clinical instruction which are found only in large cities. 

Instruction in this School is given throughout the academic year, by 
lectures, recitations, clinical teaching, and practical exercises, uniformly 
distributed. The year begins on the Thursday following the last Wednes- 
day in September, and ends on the last Wednesday in June. There is a 
recess beginning December 23, and ending January 2; and a spring re- 
cess, beginning on the Wednesday before Fast Day and ending on the 
following Tuesday, both inclusive. The course of instruction is progres- 
sive, and extends over three years, the teaching of one year not being 
repeated in the next. 

The studies of the first year are Anatomy, Physiology, and Chemistry, 
in connection with the classes in these subjects of the Harvard Medical 
School, the student receiving the same instruction by the same professors 
at the same time and place with the medical students and at the end of the 
year passing with them the same examinations. 

It is the object of the Faculty to present a complete course of instruc- 
tion in the theory and practice of Dentistry ; and for this purpose a 
well-appointed laboratory and infirmary are provided, and such arrange- 
ments made as insure an ample supply of patients. Clinical instruction 
is given by the professors and other instructors ; and, under the direction 
of demonstrators, patients are assigned to the students, insuring to all 
opportunity of operating at the chair, and becoming by actual practice 
familiar with all the operations demanded of the dentist. 

The Infirmary remains open, and one of the Clinical Instructors and 
the Demonstrator are in attendance, daily, throughout the academic year, 
ofiering to students unsurpassed facilities for acquiring practical knowl- 
edge and manipulative dexterity. 

Students have access to the hospitals of the city ; to the dissecting-room 
and museum of the Medical School ; and also, without additional charge, 
to the instruction and examinations given in any other department of the 
University^ with the exception of exercises carried on in the special 
laboratories. 



CALENDAR. 



The Tneetingsofthe President and Fellows are held on the second and 
on the last Monday of every month. 
1893. 
Sept. 28, Thursday. Academic Year begins in all departments of 

the University. 
Sept. 28, Thursday. Examinations for admission to the Law School. 

Sept. 28, 29, Thursday and Friday. Examinations for admission to 

advanced standing in the Law School. 
Stated Meeting of the Board of Overseers. 
Last day for receiving applications of Candidates 

for Final Honors in 1894. 
Last day for receiving dissertations for the Bow- 

doin and Chauncey Wright Prizes. 
Thanksgiving day ; a holiday. 
Last day for receiving applications for aid from 

the Loan Fund. 
Last day for receiving from first-year Students 
applications for Price Greenleaf Aid. 



Oct. 11, Wedne. 
Oct. 31, Tuesday. 

Oct. 31, Tuesday. 

Nov. 23, Thursday. 
Dec. 1, Friday. 

Dec. 15, Friday. 



Recess from 
1894. 

Jan. 10, Wednesday. 
Feb. 1, Thursday. 
Feb. 12, Monday. 

Feh. 22, Thursday. 
March 7, Thursday. 



March 31, Saturday. 

March 31, Saturday. 
March 31, Saturday. 



Dec. 23, 1893, to Jan. 2, 1894, inclusive. 

Stated Meeting of the Board of Overseers. 

Second half-year begins in the Medical School. 

Second half-year begins (except in the 
Medical School). 

Washington's Birthday ; a holiday. 

Last day for receiving applications of candi- 
dates for Final Honors in Natural History 
in 1895. 

Last day for receiving applications for all 
Graduate Fellowships and Scholarships, 
and for College Scholarships to be as- 
signed to Graduate Students. 

Last day for re-engaging College Rooms for 

1894-95. 
Last day for receiving applications of candidates 
for Second -Year Honors. 



CALENDAR. O 

April 4, Wednesday, Last day for receiving dissertations for the 

Boylston Medical Prizes. 

Recess from the Wednesday before Fast Day to the following 
Tuesday inclusive. 



April 11, Wednesday, 
April 25, Wednesday 

April 28, Saturday. 



May 1, Tuesday, 

May 1, Tuesday. 

May 1, Tuesday. 

May 2, Wednesday. 

May 4, Friday. 
May 10, Thursday. 
May 30, Wednesday. 
May 30, Wednesday . 



June 4, Monday. 
June 6, Wednesday. 
June 22, Friday. 
June 26, 28, 29, 30, 



June 27, Wednesday. 



Stated Meeting of the Board of Overseers. 
Last day for receiving names of competitors for 

the Boylston Prizes for Elocution. 
Applications from Graduate Students for admis- 
sion to examination for any degree should 

be made on or before this date. 
Last day for receiving from persons intending 

to enter College applications for Price 

Greenleaf Aid for 1894-95. 
Last day for receiving dissertations for the 

Toppan, Dante, Sargent, and Sumner 

Prizes. 
Last day for receiving theses of Candidates for 

the degree of Ph.D. or S.D. 
Last day for receiving applications for College 

Rooms for 1894-95. 
Assignment of College Rooms for 1894-95. 
Speaking for the Boylston Prizes. 
Memorial Day ; a holiday. 
Last day for receiving from undergraduates 

applications for College Scholarships, and 

for Price Greenleaf Aid for 1894-95. 
Examinations in the Dental School begin. 
Examinations in the Medical School begin. 
Seniors' Class Day. 
Tuesday to Saturday. Examinations for admission 

to Harvard College, and to the Lawrence 

Scientific School. 
Cominenceinent. Stated Meeting of the Board 

of Overseers. 



Summer Vacation of Thirteen Weeks, from Commencement Day 
TO September 27. 



June 28, Thursday. Examinations for admission to the Law and 

Medical Schools. 



CALENDAR. 



July 5, Thursday, Summer School opens. 

Sept. 24, Monday. Examinations in the Dental School begin. 

Sept. 20, 21, 22, 24, Thursday to Monday. Examinations for admis- 
sion to Harvard College, and to the Law- 
rence Scientific School. 

Examinations for admission to the Medical 
School. 

Examinations for admission to the Dental 
School. 

Examinations in the Medical School begin. 

Annual Meeting of the Board of Overseers. 

Academic Year begins in all departments of 
the University. 

Examinations for admission to the Law School. 
Sept. 27, 28, Thursday and Friday. Examinations for admission to 
advanced standing in the Law School. 

Stated Meeting of the Board of Overseers. 

Last day for receiving applications of candidates 
for Final Honors in 1895. 

Last day for receiving dissertations for the Bow- 
doin and Chauncy Wright Prizes. 

Last day for receiving applications for aid from 
the Loan Eund. 



Sept. 24, Monday. 

Sept. 24, Monday. 

Sept. 24, Monday. 
Sept. 26, Wednesday. 
Sept. 27, Thursday. 

Sept. 27, Thursday. 



Oct. 10, Wednesday. 
Oct. 31, Wednesday. 

Oct. 31, Wednesday . 

Dec. 1, Saturday. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



c. 


College House. 


H'y. 


Holworthy Hall. 


D. 


Divinity Hall. 


M. 


Matthews Hall. 


D. H. 


Divinity House. 


S. 


Stoughton Hall. 


E. 


Eoxcroft House. 


T. 


Thayer Hall. 


G. 


Grays Hall. 


W. 


Weld Hall. 


H. 


Hollis Hall. 


W. H. 


Walter Hastings Hall. 


H'ke. 


Holyoke House. 







Note. — Dormitories within the College grounds are known as Halls ; 
those outside the College grounds, but owned by the University, are called 
Houses ; while others, the property of private owners, are called Blocks or 
Buildings. 



[ . 



ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS. 



THE UNIVERSITY. 

President: Charles W. Eliot, ll.d. 

Office, 5 University Hall, Cambridge. 
Treasurer : Edward W. Hooper, a.b., ll.b. 
Deputy Treasurer: Allen Danforth, a.m. 

The office of the Corporation (and Treasurer and Deputy Treasurer) 
is at 50 State St., Boston. Office hours, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Secretary: Erank Bolles, ll.b. 

Office, 5 University Hall, Cambridge. Office hours, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
(from Aug. 1 to Sept. 15, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.) ; Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 
12 m. 
Bursar: Charles F. Mason, a.b. 

Office, Wadsworth House, Cambridge. Office hours, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. 



THE FACULTIES, THE COLLEGE, AND THE PROFESSIONAL 

SCHOOLS. 

Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences : Charles E. Dunbar, ll.d. 

Office, 10 University Hall, Cambridge. Office hours, Wednesday 
and Friday, 4 to 5 p.m. 
Dean of Harvard College: Le Baron R. Briggs, a.m. 

Office, 5 University Hall, Cambridge. Office hours, Monday, Tues- 
day, and Friday, 10 to 12.30. 
Regent of Harvard College : George A. Bartlett. 

Office 5 University Hall. 
Dean of the Lawrence Scientific School : Nathaniel S. Shaler, s.d. 

Office, 1 Museum. 
Dean of the Graduate School: J. M. Peirce, a.m. 

Office, 10 University Hall, Cambridge. Office hours, Tuesday, 

10 to 12. 
Dean of the Divinity Faculty : C. C. Everett, d.d. 

Office, 1 Divinity Library. Office hours, Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, 12 m. ; Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 10 a.m. 
Dean of the Law Faculty : C. C. Langdell, ll.d. 

Office, Austin Hall, Cambridge. 



y ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS. 

Dean of the Medical Faculty : Henry P. Bowditch, a.m., m.d. 
Secretary of the Medical Faculty : Charles P. Worcester, a.b., m.d. 
The offices of the Dean and Secretary of the Medical Paculty are at 

the Medical School, corner of Boylstonand Exeter Streets, Boston. 

Office hours of the Dean, 12 to 1 p.m., of the Secretary, 2 to 3 

p. m. , except Saturdays. 
Dean of the Dental Faculty : Thomas H. Chandler, a.m., d.m.d. 

The Dental School is on North Grove Street, Boston. The office of 

the Dean is at 161 Newbury Street, Boston. Office hours, 9 a.m. 

to 4 p.m. 

Dean of the School of Veterinary 3Iedicine : Charles P. Lyman, f.r.c.v.s. 
Office at the Veterinary Hospital, 50 Village Street, Boston. 

Dea7i of the Buss ey Institution : Prancis H. Storer, s.b., a.m. 

The Bussey Institution is in Jamaica Plain. The nearest railway 
and telegraph station is Forest Hills, on the Providence Division 
of the Old Colony Railroad. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL, 

BOSTONS'. 

FACULTY. 

CHARLES W. ELIOT, LL.D., President, 

THOMAS H. CHANDLER, D.M.D., Dea7i, and Professor of Mechanical 

Dentistry. 
HENRY P. BOWDITCH, M.D., Professor of Physiology. 
J. COLLINS WARREN, M.T>., Professor of Surgery. 
THOMAS DWIGHT, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Anatomy. 
THOMAS FILLEBROWN, M.D., D.M.D., Professor of Operative 

Dentistry. 
CHARLES A. BRACKETT, D.M.D., Professor of Dental Pathology. 
WILLIAM B. HILLS, M.D., Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
EUGENE H. SMITH, D.M.D., Instructor in Orthodontia. 
EDWARD C. BRIGGS, M.D., D.M.D., Assistant Professor of Materia 

Medica and Therapeutics. 
JERE E. STANTON, M.D., D.M.D., Instructor in Oral Anatomy and 

Physiology and in Bacteriology. 

OTHER INSTRUCTORS. 

FOREST G. EDDY, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
GEORGE H. MONKS, M.D., Instructor in Surgical Pathology. 
GEORGE L. WALTON, M.D., Instructor in Neurology. 
EZRA F. TAFT, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
FREDERIC S. HOPKINS, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
WILLIAM P. COOKE, D.M.D., Instructor in Crown and Bridge Work. 
DWIGHT M. CLAPP, D.M.D., Clinical Lecturer in Operative Dentistry . 
EDWIN C. BLAISDELL, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
HENRY W. GILLETT, T>.M.T>., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
WILLIAM H. POTTER, D.M.D., Clinical Lecturer in Operative 

Dentistry. 
WALDO E. BOARDMAN, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 

and Curator of Museum^. 
FREDERICK BRADLEY, Tt.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
LEONARD N. HOWE, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 



10 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 

HENRY L. UPHAM, J^M.!}., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
ARTHUR H. STODDARD, D.M.B. , Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 
ELLIS P. HOLMES, T>M.T>., Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 
HENRY A. KELLEY, Jy M.J)., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
PATRICK W. MORIARTY, D.M.D., Demonstrator of Mechanical 

Dentistry . 
SIDNEY R. BARTLETT, D.M.D., Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 
HARRY O. BIXBY, T>M.T>., Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 
BENJAMIN H. CODMAN, D.M.D., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. 
ARTHUR W. ELDRED, T>M.T>., Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 
ARTHUR J. OLDHAM, TyM.D., Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 
JOSEPH T. PAUL, T>M.T)., Demonstrator of Operative Dentistry. 
FRED H. WOODCOCK, J^M.!)., Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Executive Committee — Dean, Drs. Fillebrown, Brackett, Smith, Briggs, 

Stanton. 
Admission Examination — Dean, Brackett, Stanton. 
Building — Fillebrown, Bowditch, Smith. 
Advertising and Catalogue — Dean, Fillebrown, Smith. 
Courses of Study — Dean, Brackett, Stanton. 



THE L>KNTAL SCHOOL. 



11 



STUDENTS. 



Third Year. 



NAME. 

Arnold, Eugene Everett, 
Crane, Charles Winfield, 
Cummings, Charles Oscar, a.b. 

{Dartmouth Coll.) 1890, 
Dickerman, Frank Roberts, 
Field, George William, Jr. 
Gray, George Rufus, 
Grove, Joseph Geiger, 
Hanau, Max, 
Jackson, Arthur, 
Lamere, Arthur John, 
Macloon, George Rogers, 
Pearson, Richard, m.b.b.s. 

{Durham Univ.) 1889. 
Quinby, Edward Melville, l.d.s., 

M.R.C.S. 

Quirk, Charles Hudson, m.d. 

(ffarv.) 1892, Buenos 

Richardson, Frederick King, 
Sansom, William Bertram, l.d.s. 
Smith, John Joseph, 
Snow, Wallace, 
Wilkinson, Frank Merrett, 



PRESENT ADDRESS. 



RESIDENCE. 

Pawiucket, R. L 
Beverly i 

Claremont^ N. H. 

Taunton^ 

London^ England, 

Worcester^ 

Delaware, O. 

Worms am Rhine, Germany, 

Boston, 

Lowell, 

Deering, Me, 

London, England, 

Liverpool, England, 

Aires, Argen. Rep. 

Duluth, Minn. 

London, England, 

Warren, R. /. 

Boston, 

Kooringa, So. Australia, 



Ashley, Frederick Merton, 
Belliveau, Joseph Bergin, 
Boylston, Joseph, 
Haley, Harry West, 
Hayden, Thomas Bernard, 
Percival, Frederick William, 
Quinn, Thomas Edward, 
Smith, Arthur Galusha, 
Taft, George Lund, 
Veo, Lewis Napoleon, 
Walton, William Joseph, 
Williams, Percy Martin, 



Second Year. 

Somerville, 

Melrose, 

No. Duxhury, 

Biddeford, Me. 

Roxhury, 

Peterhoro , England, 

Putnam, Conn. 

Peoria, III. 

Cambridge, 

Lowell, 

Dorchester, 

Walling ford, Vt, 



12 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



Barnard, Francis Homer, Jr. 
Barrows, Edward Doane, 
Bartlett, Robert Lander, 
Carr, Clarence Augustus, 
Carter, Cecil Francis, 
Estey, Harold Watson, 
Gettings, David Edward, 
Hall, John Calvin, 
Home, Robert Gilkey, 
Howland, Joseph Briggs, 
Mclntyre, George Francis, 
McMeekin, Robert John, 
Header, Frederick Everett, 
Milliken, Richard Dyer, 
Mofiatt, Robert Tucker, 
Munroe, Charles Everett. 
O'Brien, Henry Clinton. 
Pierce, Frank Sylvester, 
Rice, Francis Wheeler, 
Sweet, Walter Irving, 
Wolfe, Oliver Perry, 
Woodcock, Arthur Hale, 



First Year. 

Duluthj Minn. 

West Hampden, Me, 

Lynn, 

Newport, R. I. 

London, England^ 

Roslindale, 

Boston, 

Chelsea, 

Watertown, 

Brockton, 

Worcester, 

Boston, 

Wolfehoro, 

Saco, Me. 

Boston, 

Norfolk Downs^ 

Boston, 

Worcester, 

Portland, Me. 

Providence, R. L 

No. Weymouth, 

Worcester, 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL, 13 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

All candidates for admission, except those who have passed an examina- 
tion for admission to Harvard College, or the Lawrence Scientific School, 
must present a degree in Letters, Science, or Medicine, from a recognized 
college or scientific school, or pass an examination in the following 
subjects : 

i. English. Every candidate will be required to write, legibly and 
correctly, an English composition of not less than two hundred words, 
and also to write English prose from dictation. 

2. Physics. A competent knowledge of Physics (such as may be 
obtained from Balfour Stewart's Elements of Physics). 

Elective Subjects. Each candidate for admission must also pass an 
examination in one of the following subjects : Latin, French, German, 
the Elements of Algebra, or Plane Geometry. 

Students may be admitted to advanced standing upon passing a satisfac- 
tory examination in a majority of the studies already pursued by the class, 
but before taking the degree examinations in all the studies must have 
been satisfactorily passed. 

Graduates of recognized Dental Schools will be admitted without 
examination to the courses of Operative and Mechanical Dentistry, but 
attendance on such courses does not entitle to examination for the degree 
nor to a certificate of attendance. 

The examinations for admission are conducted in writing. In judging 
the work of the candidate, the spelling, grammar and construction are 
considered. 

The examination for admission is held at the Dental School in North 
Grove St., Boston, on the Monday preceding the last Wednesday in Sep- 
tember, beginning at 10 a.m. 

JVo person will be examined for admission at any other than the regu- 
larly appointed time. 

The entrance and first-year examinations will be allowed to foreign 
students who have passed equivalent examinations abroad, upon presen- 
tation of proper certificates from the examining boards vouching for the 
facts. 

All persons intending to take the entrance examination must send their 
names to the Dean for registry at least two weeks previous to the day on 
which the examination is to take place. 



14 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. 

The following are the methods of study adopted in the various depart- 
ments : — 

For the First Year. — Anatomy-dissection, physiology, histology, and 
embryology; general chemistry, hygiene, and medical chemistry during 
the second half-year. 

For the Second Year. — Oral pathology, operative dentistry, mechanical 
dentistry ; general and dental materia medica and therapeutics ; oral 
anatomy and physiology, bacteriology, and surgical pathology ; practical 
work every forenoon in the mechanical laboratory and every afternoon 
in the operative infirmary, and crown and bridge work. 

For the Third Year. — Operative dentistry, mechanical dentistry, ortho- 
dontia, neurology, practical work in operative infirmary and mechanical 
laboratory. 

INSTRUCTION FOR 1893-94. 
Anatomy. 

Descriptive Anatomy. Four times a week. Professor Dwight. 

Practical Anatomy, with Exercises in Dissection. Eight hours daily 
from October 15 till May, Demonstrations and recitations. Drs. Dexter 
and . 

Physiology. 

Systematic and Experimental Physiology Four times a week during 
first half-year. Five times a week during second half-year. Professors 
BowDiTCH and . 

Laboratory Exercises in Experimental Physiology. Four times a 
week in sections. Dr. . 



Chemistry. 

Descriptive and Analytical Chemistry. Twice a week^ with an additional 
weekly exercise during the first ten weeks Professor Hills. 

Medical Chemistry. Twice a week during second half-year. Professor 
Hills. 

Clinical Chemistry. Twece a week. Professor Wood. 

Practical Exercises in the Laboratory in Analytical and Medical 
Chemistry. Daily. Professors Wood and Hills, and Dr. Harrington, 
Worcester and Wentworth. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 15 

Hygiene. 

Lectures and Demonstrations. Once a week during the second half- 
year. Dr. Harrington. 

Operative Dentistry. 

Lectures. Once a week. 

Clinical Lectures. Once a week for ten weeks. 

Practical Work. First year, six hours a week for half-year ; second 
and third years^ fifteen hours a week throughout the year. 

Mechanical Dentistry. 

Lectures. Once a week. 

Practical Work. Eighteen hours a week throughout the year. 

Surgery. 

Surgery. Lectures. Once a week for three months ; twice a week for 
five months. Professor Warren. 

Surgery and Surgical Pathology. Lectures. Twice a week till January, 
Professor Warren. 

Clinical Surgery. 

Lectures. Once a week till January. Professor Warren. Once a 
week from October till March. Professor Porter. Once a week sronn 
March till June. Professor Warren. 

Operative Surgery. 

Operations are performed before the students one day each week 
throughout the year in the Amphitheatres at the Massachusetts General 
Hospital and Boston City Hospital. 

Operative Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. Exercises illustrated upon 
the cadaver twice a week in March and April. Professor Porter. 

The Surgical Cases at the Eye and Ear Infirmary and at the Boston 
Dispensary are shown by the surgeons in charge. 

Dental Pathology. 
Lectures. Once a week. 

Oral Anatomy and Physiology. 
Lectures and Demonstrations. Once a week. 



16 TPIE DENTAL SCHOOL, 

Surgical Pathology. 
Lectures. Once a week for ten weeks. 

Materia Medica. 
Lectures. Once a week for twenty-four weeks. 

Orthodontia. 
Lectures and Demonstrations. Once a week. 

Neurology. 
Lectures. Once a week for six weeks. 

METHODS OF INSTRUCTION. 

Anatomy, — Lectures, demonstrations, various practical exercises, 
including dissection under the direction of the Demonstrator; reci- 
tations. 

Physiology. — Lectures, recitations, conferences, and practical demon- 
strations. Opportunities for work in the physiological laboratory of the 
new Medical School are offered to students who are qualified to carry 
on original investigations. 

Chemistry is taught mainly by practical work in the laboratory, each 
student having his own desk and apparatus. Descriptive chemistry and 
qualitative analysis are taught during the first half of the first year. 
Besides the laboratory work, there are two lectures every week. In the 
second half of the first year medical chemistry is taught by lectures, 
recitations, and exercises in the laboratory, where each student will be 
taught the chemistry and microscopy of the urine and the tests for the 
important poisons. 

Surgery. — Lectures and recitations in oral surgery illustrated by col- 
ored drawings and by recent and morbid specimens. All approved instru- 
ments and apparatus are exhibited and explained. Operations are per- 
formed on the living subject at the hospitals, and upon the dead body. 
Instruction is given in the use of anaesthetics. 

Instruction in clinical surgery is given at the Massachusetts General 
Hospital and City Hospital every week. 

Surgical Pathology. — Lectures and recitations embracing the subjects 
of shock, inflammation, repair, suppuration, ulceration, mortification, 
embolism, pyaemia, erysipelas, and tetanus. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 17 

Operative Dentistry. — The instruction in this department is both didac- 
tic and practical. The Professor and other Instructors endeavor to demon- 
strate all known methods of performing operations upon the teeth and 
other tissues involved. 

The treatment of decay, the materials used for filling teeth, the most 
approved instruments and appliances used in operating upon the teeth, 
are appropriately discussed. Clinics are held at the Infirmary, and every 
available means used to make the student practically acquainted with all the 
modern improvements of this important branch of dental science ; but no 
student will be permitted to operate at the chair until he has by observa- 
tion and practice an extracted teeth satisfied the Professor of his fitness. 

Oral Anatomy and Physiology. — Lectures and recitations upon the 
minute anatomy of the teeth and their histological development, and the 
surgical pathology of the tissues in and about the mouth. A part of this 
course will be devoted to the study of bacteria. Material is furnished 
for the examination of the tissues in a healthy and diseased condition, 
with instruction in its preparation. Instruction is given in the use of the 
microscope, and the preparation of objects for examination. 

Dental Pathology. — In the beginning of the course of lectures the 
general principles of pathology, including etiology, nosology, semeiology, 
diagnosis, and prognosis are outlined. The various pathological condi- 
tions in their relations to one another and their modifications of structure 
and function are taught. This prepares the way for the special pathology 
of the region with which the dentist has most to do. The diseases of the 
dental and contiguous tissues are considered in detail, with reference to 
their nature, causes, manifestations and terminations, and their relations 
with systemic conditions. 

Materia Medica and Therapeutics. — Lectures, recitations, and demon- 
strations of crude drugs and their preparations. This is a complete 
course , as taught in the medical school to medical students. Remedies 
are classified, however, to meet the special requirements of the dental 
practitioner, and the student is particularly instructed upon those reme- 
dies which, as a specialist, he will be called upon most to use. 

Mechanical Dentistry. — Lectures and practical work in the laboratory ; 
the manner in which mineral teeth are constructed, the principles and 
method of carving and furnace-work, and all compounds used for artifi- 
cial teeth; also metallurgy, and the manner in which gold and silver 
plates are prepared and adapted to the mouth; the use of rubber and 
other articles as bases. It is the aim to teach not only the mere mechani- 
cal processes of dentistry, but that combination of art with mechanism 
which enables the practitioner to eff'ect so much in restoring the symmetry 



18 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 

of the face and usefulness of the teeth, where they have been lost or 
impaired by accident or disease. 

07'thodontia is taught by lectures and by practical work in the infirmary. 
Models of cases are shown, and students are made familiar with the prin- 
ciples underlying the irregularities and the various appliances for their 
correction. 

Neurology. — A course of six lectures on neurology will include a brief 
review of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, the anatomy 
of the trifacial nerve being made the subject of special study. 

The nervous disturbances liable to be set up by dental irritation, and, 
conversely, those likely to produce odontalgia, will be considered as fully 
as the limited nature of the course permits, special attention being paid 
to trifacial neuralgia. 

Clinical Lectures on Operative Dentistry. — These exercises include: 
operations on patients, demonstrations and exhibition of models, showing 
the individual methods of the lecturers with descriptions and explanations. 

TEXT-BOOKS. 

The following works are recommended as text-books, and for collateral 
reading and consultation : — 

Anatomy. 

Text-Books. — Gray (11th edition). Quain (10th edition). Wilson, 
Holden's Landmarks. Dwight's Frozen sections of a Child. Treves* 
Applied Anatomy. 

Collateral Reading. — Harrison Allen's Anatomy. Tillaux, Anatomie 
Topographique. Holden's Osteology. Humphry's Human Skeleton. 
Morris, on the Joints. Weisse's Practical Human Anatomy. McClellan's 
Regional Anatomy. 

Histology and Embryology. 

Text-hooks. — Stohr's Lehrbuch der Histologic, or Schaefer's Essen- 
tials of Histology. 

Collateral Reading. — Quain's Anatomy (10th edition). Lee's micro- 
scopist's Vade-mecum, Schiefferdecker and Kossel's Gewebelehre. Minot's 
Human Embryology. Foster and Balfour's Embryology. 

Physiology. 

Text- Books. — Foster's Text-book of Physiology. Martin, The Human 
Body. Kirke's Handbook of Physiology. Waller, Human Physiology. 

Collateral Reading. — Fick, Compendium der Physiologic. Hallibur- 
ton's Text-book of Chemical Physiology and Pathology. McGregor- 
Robertson's Elements of Physiological Physics. Landois' Manual of 
Human Physiology. Stirling's Practical Physiology. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 19 

General Chemistry. 
Text-Books. — Witthaus* Medical Student's Manual of Chemistry. 
Collateral Reading. — Miller's, Roscoe and Schorlemmer's, or Fownes' 
Chemistry. Douglass and Prescott's, or Fresenius' Qualitative Analysis. 

Medical Chemistry. 

Text-Books. — Tyson, Practical Examination of Urine. Wharton and 
Stille's Medical Jurisprudence, Vol. II., on Poisons, 4th edition. 

Collateral Reading. — Ultzmann and Hoffmann's Atlas der Harnsedi- 
mente. Roberts' Urinary and Renal Diseases. Neubauer and Yogel, 
Analysis of the Urine. Hoppe-Seyler, Physiologische Chemie. Taylor 
on Poisons. Wormley's Micro-Chemistry of Poisons. 

Dental Chemistry. 
Text-Book. — Mitchell's Dental Chemistry. 

Surgery. 
Text-Books. — An American Text-Book of Surgery. Holmes's System 
of Surgery. The International Encyclopedia of Surgery. Van Buren 
and Keyes's Genito-urinary Organs and Syphilis. Jacobson's Surgical 
Operations. Trev^es' Manual of Operative Surgery. Garretson's Oral 
Surgery. 

Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Edes' Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Potter's Materia Medica. 
Bartholow's Hypodermatic Medication. 

Dental Pathology. 
Wedl's Dental Pathology. Magitot's Dental Caries. 

Surgical Pathology. 
Billroth's Surgical Pathology. 

Oral Anatomy and Physiology. 
Black's Dental Anatomy. Tomes* Dental Surgery. Miller's Microor- 
ganisms of the Human Mouth. 

Orthodontia. 
Farrar's Irregularities of the Teeth. Talbot's Irregularities. Guilford's 
Orthodontia. 

Operative Dentistry. 

Fillebrown's Operative Dentistry. Taft's Operative Dentistry. Ameri- 
can System of Dentistry. 



20 THE DENTAL SCPIOOL. 

Mechanical Dentistry. 
Kichardson's Mechanical Dentistry. Kingley's Oral Deformities. Har- 
ris' Principle and Practice. 

Crown and Bridge Work. 
Evans. 

Anaesthesia. 
Anstie's Stimulants and Narcotics. TurnbuU's Anaesthetic Manual. 

CLINICAL ADVANTAGES. 

The Dental Department of the University is established in Boston, in 
order to secure those advantages for Clinical Instruction which are 
found only in large cities. 

Dental Statistics. — The clinics of the Dental Hospital afford a suffi- 
cient number of patients to give every student abundant practice in all 
branches of dentistry throughout the year. During 1892-93 over 4,000 
patients were treated for various dental lesions and over 23,000 operations 
were performed, an average of 118 patients for each student. 

Artificial plates (an average of 8J sets for each student) . . 285 

Cases of Orthodontia 70 

Obturators G 

Other cases 102 

Each student is assigned a chair, and is expected to improve his oppor- 
tunity and operate three hours every day, five days in the week, giving 
each student during each year 480 hours of practice in operative dentistry. 

In the mechanical department the student gives three hours a day for 
six days each week, giving 576 hours' practice each year. 

The Museum contains nearly 2,000 specimens, and offers unusual 
facilities for study of the teeth. The pathological anatomy of the teeth is 
shown by nearly 1,000 specimens, among which are over two hundred 
dissected teeth showing formations of secondary dentine in the puip 
cavity, and also many other rare specimens of great value. 

There are 600 other specimens of human and comparative anatomy, 
illustrating a wide range of knowledge. 

There are Hospital visits or operations daily. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital. — During the past year, 3409 
patients were treated in the wards, and 25,819 in the out-patient depart- 
ments. Patients are received from all parts of the United States and 
the Provinces, and are visited by the students, with the attending phy- 
sicians and surgeons, on four days in the week. Operations are numerous, 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 21 

and are performed in the amphitheatre, which is provided with seats for 
400 persons. Clinics in the following special branches have been estab- 
lished in connection with the out-patient department : Dermatology, 
Laryngology, Diseases of the Nervous System, and Ophthalmology. 

The City Hosintal. — During the past year, 7910 cases were treated 
in its wards, and 15,5G0 in its various out-patient departments. The 
medical wards always contain many cases of acute diseases, and changes 
are taking place constantly. The opportunities for seeing fractures, 
injuries, and traumatic cases of all kinds are excellent, since, on an aver- 
age, 800 street accidents are yearly treated. Surgical operations are per- 
formed in the amphitheatre. Diseases of the eye, the ear, and the skin 
are largely treated' in the out-patient department. Clinical instruction 
is given by the physicians and surgeons twice a week. 

In these two hospitals, the facilities for witnessing Operative Surgery 
are unsurpassed. Twice a week operations are performed in the pres- 
ence of the class. The number of these operations is large, reaching 
nearly two thousand a year. The variety is great, embracing every sur- 
gical disease and injury, including the surgical operations on the eye 
and ear. 

The Boston Dispensaj-y. — 42,116 patients were treated at this Public 
Charity during the past year. A new building has lately been erected at a 
cost of ^50,000, where students have ample and excellent opportunity for 
seeing practical work in the diagnosis and treatment of cases illustrating 
the various branches of medicine and surgery. 

The 3Iassachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. — The fourteen 
thousand patients annually treated at this institution present every variety 
of disease of the ear and eye, and supply a large number of operations. 

The Marine Hospital at Chelsea receives from the shipping of the port 
a large number of patients, who furnish examples of the diseases of for- 
eign countries and of distant parts of the United States. Many cases of 
venereal disease, in its various forms, are treated annually. 



LIBRARIES. 

The College Library at Cambridge is open to students and also the 
library of the Boston Medical Library Association which has a dental 
section containing a large and very complete collection of dental 
literature. 

The Boston Public Library is open to students who are inhabitants of 
Boston. Students who are not inhabitants of Boston, who have filed bonds 
at the Treasurer's office, or deposited with the treasurer the sum of fifty 
dollars, may also use this Library. 



22 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



INSTRUMENTS. 

With tlie exception of extracting instruments, lathes, and vulcanizers, 
each student will be required to furnish his own instruments, and appli- 
ances for both laboratory and operating room. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

The regular examinations, conducted in writing and orally, are held at 
the end of each year in June in the following order, viz : — 

At the end of the first year in the studies of that year, — anatomy, 
two hours, including dissection; physiology, three hours; and chemistry, 
tliree hours. A certificate from the Demonstrator of Anatomy will be 
required of each student that he has satisfactorily performed the required 
dissections. 

At the end of the second year in the studies of that year, — dental 
pathology, two hours; materia medica and therapeutics, two hours; oral 
anatomy, three hours ; physiology and bacteriology, tM^o hours; surgical 
pathology, three hours. 

At the end of the third year in operative dentistry, two hours ; mechani- 
cal dentistry, two hours ; and in orthodontia, one hour. These 
examinations will include actual operations performed during the course, 
and the preparation of specimens of mechanical dentistry. 

Applicants for advanced standing must pass all the examinations of the 
years which they desire to omit, or furnish proof that they have passed 
equivalent examinations. 

No student will be allowed to anticipate the examinations in the regular 
course of studies of his year, except by special permission of the Faculty. 
Students intending to present themselves for examination must notify the 
Dean by letter of such intention, two weeks before the time when the 
examination is to be held. ^ 

Those who fail in any subject may present themselves in that subject 
again at the next regular examination. The regular examinations for the 
year 1893-94 will begin June 4 and September 24, 1894. 

DIVISION OF STUDENTS. 

Students are divided into three classes according to their lines of study 
and proficiency, and during their last year will receive largely increased 
opportunities of clinical instruction and practice in the practical work of 
operations on the natural teeth and mouth. 

In order that the time of study shall count as a full year^ students of 
all classes must present themselves within the first week of the School year 
and register their names with the Dean. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 2:> 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE. 

The degree of Doctor of Dental Medicine (^Dentariae Mcdicinac Doctor) 
may be conferred upon any candidate of adult age, and of good moral 
character, who has passed all the required examinations^ and convinced 
the Professors and Instructors of Operative and Mechanical Dentistry of 
his ability to meet satisfactorily the requirements of his art. He must 
also give evidence of having studied medicine or dentistry three full 
years, the last continuous year of which must have been spent at this 
School. 

He must also deposit with the Dean, to be placed in the Museum of the 
School, a specimen of mechanical dentistry, or of practical or patholog- 
ical anatomy, prepared during the course under the eye of the instructor. 

No student may advance with his class until he has passed a satisfactory 
examination in a majority of the studies already pursued by his class. 

Admission to advanced standing does not diminish the time (three years) 
to be spent in professional studies. 

The course is a graded one of three continuous years. Graduates 
from other reputable dental schools will be permitted to enter the Senior 
class after passing the required examinations, or without examination, by 
special vote of the Faculty. 

FEES AND EXPENSES. 

There are no fees for matriculation, for the diploma, or for the demon- 
strators. For the first year a student is a member of the School, the fee 
is $200, in two payments of $120 and $80, at the beginning of each term ; 
for the second year, $150, in two payments of $100 and $50, payable at 
the beginning of each term ; for any subsequent year, $50, payable at the 
beginning of the year. 

Students who do not file a bond are required to deposit $15 to cover 
breakages, &c. in the Chemical Laboratory; also a deposit of $6 for parts 
for dissection. The unused balance is returned at the end of the year. 

Graduates of recognized Dental Schools will be admitted to the courses 
of Operative and Mechanical Dentistry for the whole or any portion of 
the academic year on payment of fifty dollars for each course. By attend- 
ing these courses the student does not become a candidate for the degree 
nor is he entitled to a certificate of attendance. 

Of students who do not pay in advance, a bond for $300 executed by 
two sufficient bondsmen, one of whom must be a citizen of the United 
States, is required. A copy of such bond will be sent, on application to the 
Treasurer of the University. The bond of the ** American Surety Com- 
pany," if made in a form satisfactory to the Treasurer of the University, 



24 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 

will also be accepted. To students depositing these bonds, term-bills 
will be presented a week before the end of the first term, to be paid 
within two weeks ; and also one week or more before Commencement, to 
be paid on or before the beginning of the next academic year. Such 
students will be held responsible for the payment of fees until they shall 
have notified the Dean of their intention to withdraw from the School, 
and have received their bond from the Treasurer. No degree can he con- 
ferred till all dues to the School are discharged. 

Whenever a student is obliged to withdraw from the School before the 
last four weeks of a half-year for no misdemeanor, but for good and 
sufficient reason, to be determined in all cases by the Faculty, it shall be 
recommended that he be entitled to a remission of three-fourths of the 
amount due for that portion of the time during which he receives no 
instruction — this remission to date from the reception by the Dean of a 
written notice of the student's withdrawal from the School. 

The student's expenses may be reduced, in accordance with his means, 
to the standard which prevails in other cities. The Janitor of the Medi- 
cal School keeps a liet of boarding-houses in which the charges are from 
five dollars per week upwards, according to accommodation furnished. 

Students, on joining the School, must enter their names with the Dean 
of the Faculty. 

For further information address Thos. H. Chandler, Dean, 161 New- 
bury St., Back Bay, Boston, Mass. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



25 



The following Tabular View illustrates the distribution of 
studies throughout the year. 

1892-93, FROM SEPTEMBER 29 TO JUNE 23. 



First Class. 
Medical School, Boylston St. 





Monday. 


Tuesday. 


Wednesday. 


Thursday. 


Friday. 


Saturday. 


9 


Anatomy, L. 
Prof. Dwight. 
Lect.-room C. 


Anatomy, L. 
Prof. Dwight. 
Lect.-room C. 


1 Anatomy, L. 
Prof. Dwight. 
Lect.-room C. 


1 Anatomy, L. 
Prof. Dwight. 
Lect.-room C. 
2 Physiol. C. 
Lect.-room A. 


Anatomy, R. 

Dr. Munro. 

Lcct. -rooms 

C and D. 




10 


1 Hygiene, L. 
Dr. Harring- 
ton. 


Histol. ] 
Laborat. 
Prof. y 
Minot [ 

and Dr. 

Quincy. j 


Histology. 

L. 
Prof. Minot. 


r Histol. 1 

Laborat. 

J Prof. y 

Minot j 

and Dr. 

1 Quincy. j 


1 Histology. 

L. 
Prof. Minot. 


Physiol., R. 
Prof. Bow- 
ditch. 
Lect.-rm.A. 


11 


Physiology. 

L. 
Prof. Bow- 
ditch. 
Lect.-room A. 


Physiology. 

Prof. Bow- 
ditch. 
Lect.-room A. 


Physiology. 

Prof. Bow- 

ditcli. 

Lect.-room A. 


Chemistry 
L. or R. 
5 weeks. 
Prof. Hills. 
Lect-r'mA. 
* Laborat'y. 


12 




Chemistry, L. 

Prof. Hills. 
Lect.-room A. 




Chemistry, L. 

Prof. Hills. 

Lect.-room A. 




* Laborat'y. 


2 


*Lab oratory. 


Physiology. 

Dem. 
Lect.-room A. 


f Dr. Up- 1 

ham. 

Practical 

^ Dentistry. > 

Dtl.Hosp. 

No. Grove 

. St. 


*Lab oratory. 


r Dr. Cod- ^ 

man. 

Practical 

i Dentistry. > 

Dtl.Hosp. 

N. Grove 

I St. 




3 


2 Bacteriology 

L. 

Asst. Prof. 

Ernst. 

Lect.-room A. 








4 


Laboratory. 




5 


X An atomy. 

Dem. 
Dr. Dexter. 
Lect.-room D. 
Pract. Anat. 
Asst. Prof. M. 
H. Richard- 
son. 
Lect.-room C. 


^Anatomy. 

Dem. 
Dr. Dexter. 
Lect.-room D. 


^Anatomy. 

Dem. 
Dr. Dexter. 
Lect.-room D. 
Pract. Anat. 
Asst. Prof. M. 
H. Richard- 
son. 
Lect.-room C. 


3t Anatomy. 

Dem. 

Dr. Dexter. 

Lect.-room D. 

• 


^Anatomy. 

Dem. 
Dr. Dexter. 
Lect.-room D. 
Pract. Anat. 
Asst. Prof. M. 
H. Richard- 
son. 
Lect.-room C. 





* In sections. f During first half-year. X During second half-year. 

The studies of the first year are pursued at the Medical School, corner Boylston and 
Exeter Streets. 



26 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



Second Class. 

Dental Hospital, North Gbovb St. 





Monday. 


Tuesday. 


Wednesday. 


Thursday. 


Friday. 


Saturday. 


9 


Surg. Path., L. 

Dr. Monks. 

10 weeks. 

Lect.-room B. 

Dr. Cooke. 

* Crown and 

Bridge work. 

Clin. Lect. 

or Dem. 


Mat. Medica. 

andXhera.jL. 

Asst. Prof. 

Briggs. 

Lect.-room A. 


Op. Dent.,L. 

Prof. Fille- 

brown. 

Lect.-room A. 


Prac. Median. 
Dentistry. 

Lab. 
Dr. Moritz. 


Oral Anat. & 
Physiology ,L. 

Dr. Stanton. 
Lect.-room A. 


Mechan. 

Dent., L. 
Prof. Chand- 
ler. 
Lect.-rm.A. 


10 


Prac. Median. 
Dentistry. 

Lab. 
Dr. Eldred. 


Prac. Mechan* 

Dentistry. 

Lab. 

Dr. Bartlett. 


Prac. Median. 

Dentistry. 

Lab. 

Dr.Woodcock 


Prac.Mechan. 
Dentistry. 

Lab. 
Dr. Bixby. 


Prac. Mech. 

Dentistry. 

Lab. 


lOi 


Dent. Path. ,L. 
Dr. Brackett. 




lU 














12 


Dr. Moriarty. 
Dem. 


Dr. Moriarty. 
Dem. 


Dr. Moriarty. 
Dem. 


Laborator}'. 
Prac.Mechan. 

Dentistry. 

Dr. Mori art ^. 

Dem. 


Dr. Moriarty. 
Dem. 


Dr. Mori- 
arty, Dem. 


2 


I'ract. Op. 
Dentistry. 
Dr. Holmes. 


Pract. Op. 
Dentistry. 
Dr. Kelley. 


Pract. Op. 
Dentistry. 
Dr. Howe. 


Pract. Op. 

Dentistry. 

Dr. Blaisddl. 


Pract. Op. 

Dentistry. 

Dr. Hopkins. 




4 
5 


Dr. Paul. 
Dem. 


Dr. Paul. 
Dem. 


Dr. Paul. 
Dem. 


Dr. Paul. 
Dem. 


Dr. Paul. 
Dem. 





* During second half-year. 



IDlli. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



27 



Third Class. 
Dental Hospital, North Grove St. 





Monday. 


Tuesday. 


Wednesday. 


Thursday. 


Friday. 


Saturday. 




♦Neuror^y,L. 














6 weeks. 














Dr. Walton. 














Lect.-room A. 














* Dent. Chem. 














L. 


Prac. Median. 


Op. Dent., L. 


Orthodontia. 


Prac. Median. 


Mechan. 




Dr. Worcester. 


DentistiT. 


Prof. Fille- 


L. or Dem. 


Dentistry. 


Dent. L. 


9 


10 weeks. 


Lab. 


brown. 


Dr. Smith. 


Lab. 


Prof.Chand- 




Lect.-room B. 


Dr. Bartlett. 


Lect.-room A. 


Lect.-room A. 


Dr. Bixby. 


ler. 




Dr. Clapp. 








*Dr. Stoddard. 


Lect.-rm.A. 




4 weeks in 














Dec. 














Dr. Potter. 














5weeksinJan. 














Prac. Median. 


Prac.Mechan. 


Prac.Mechan. 


Prac. Mech. 


10 


Dentistry. 




Dentistry. 


Dentistry. 




Dentistry. 




Lab. 




Lab. 


Lab. 




Lab. 




Dr. Eldred. 




Dr.Woodcock 


Dr. Moritz. 








Dr. lSloriart3^ 


Dr. Moriarty. 


Dr. Moriarty. 


Dr. Moriarty. 


Dr. Moriarty. 


Dr. Mori- 


12 


Dem. 


Dem. 


Dem. 


Dem. 


Dem. 


arty, Dem. 




Pract. Op. 


Pract. Op. 


Pract. Op. 


Pract. Op. 


Pract. Op. 




2 


Dentistry. 


Dentistry. 


Dentistiy. 


Dentistry. 


Dentistry. 






Dr. Gillett. 


Dr. Taft. 


Dr. Eddy. 


Dr. Bradley. 
Surgery, L. 


Dr. Board- 
man. « 




4 


Dr. PauL 


Dr. PauL 


Dr. Paul. 


Prof. Warren. 


Dr. Paul. 




Dem. 


Dem. 


Dem. 


Dr. Paul. 


Dem. 




5 








Dem. 







* During second half-year. 



LIST OF GRADUATES 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



1869. 



Thomas Fillebrown, m.d. 
Robert Tanner Freeman, 
Thomas Haley, 
Edward Page, m.d. 
Samuel Julius Shaw, 
Joseph Jenkins Vincent, 



Boston. 

*1873. 

*1892. 

Charlestown. 

Boston. 

Brockton. 



1870. 



John Thomas Codman, 
William Francis Davis, 
George Franklin Grant, 
Samuel Franklin Ham, 
Daniel Grout Harrington, 
Thomas Wilson Hogue, 
Timothy Otis Loveland, 
William Henry Noyes, 
George Luther Parmele, m.d. 
William Henry Thornton, 
Frank Edward Ward, 
Charles Wilson, 



Boston. 

Adams. 

Boston. 

Portsmouth, N. H. 

Boston. 

Bournemouth, England. 

Boston. 

Newburyport. 

Hartford, Conn. 

Providence, R. I. 

New Bedford. 

Boston. 



Charles Monroe Bailey, 
George Hay ward Baker, 
Charles Edwin Hussey, 
Albert Benton Jewell, 
Philip Benjamin Laskey, 
William Pitt Morgan, 



1871. 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

Woonsocket, R. I. 

Biddeford, Me. 

Newton. 

Marblehead. 

Saginaw City, Mich. 



* Deceased. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



2 'J 



1872. 



George Henry Ames, 

Sidney Chapin Bancroft, 

Charles Samuel Bartlett, 

James Dias Bell, 

Edwin Perley Bradbury, 

James Adkins Clark, m.d. 

James William Curtis, 

George William Geist, 

John AYarner Keyes, 

George Edward Langdon Noyes, 

Frederic Miller Robinson, 

Samuel Saiza Silva, 

Benjamin Henry Torrens, 

Winslow Lewis Tucker a.m. (Harv.) 

Cecil Porter Wilson, 



Providence, R. I. 

Washington, D. C. 

Boston. 

London, England. 

Boston. 

*1875. 

Brunswick, Me. 

Frankfiirt am Main, Germany. 

Kearney, Neb. 

Newburyport. 

Boston. 

Southbridge. 

Fredericton, N. B. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



1873. 
Charles Albert Brackett, 
Edward Augustus Dimmick, 
George Henry Knowles, 
William Herbert Rollins, m.d. (Harv.) 
Charles Herman Wolfe, 



Newport, R. I. 

Barbadoes, W. I. 

Central Falls, R. I. 

Boston. 

Worms am Rhein, Germany. 



1874. 



Willis Porter Battles, 
Edward Dwight Carr, 
Edward Eastman Frost, 
George Leonard Mason, 
Horatio Cook Meriam, 
Frederic Augustus Merrill, 
Eugene Hanes Smith, 
Franklin Baker Stewart, 



Providence, R. I. 

Truxton, N. Y. 

Worcester. 

New York, N. Y. 

Salem. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

*1877. 



Forest Greenwood Eddy, 
John Willard Hazleton, 
Joseph Traverse Morong, 
Wilbur Bates Parker, 
Eben Francis Whitman, 



1875. 



Providence, R. I. 

Salem. 

*1880. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



* Deceased. 



80 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



1876. 

Thomas Bradley, 

Oscar Berlin Brann, 

George Peters Caldwell, m.d. 

George Cunningham, b.l., b.s.c, b.a. , l.d.s. 

Edgar Morton Jewett, 

George Otis Lawrence, 

Jesse Bobbins, 

Charles Claude Bogers, l.d.s., m.r.c.s. 

Ezra Fletcher Taft, a.b. 

Julius George William Werner, 



New York, N. Y. 

Portland, Me. 

St. John, N. B. 

Cambridge, England. 

Portsmouth, N. H. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Salem. 

London, England. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



1877. 
Allston Gray Bouve, 
Henry Francis Dunkel, 
Edward Bigelow Hitchcock, m.d. 
Washburn Eddy Page, 
Frank Perrin, 
Lucius Tracy Sheffield, 
Richard Theodore Stack, a.b., m.d., ch.: 
Frank Herbert Williams, 

1878. 

Edward Cornelius Briggs, m.d. (Harv.) 

Joseph Mason Bright, 

Harry Fairfield Hamilton, 

Manning Kennard Band, 

Daniel Frank Whitten, 

Herbert Chauncey Woodward, 



1879. 



Frederic Eugene Banfield, 
Walter Bryant Currier, 
Thomas Clarence Gillingham, 
Edward Samuel Niles, 
John William Smith, 

Frederic Eugene Ayer, 
Albert James Colgan, 
Arthur Ernestine Lewis, 
John Scott Mason, 
Virgil Clarence Pond, b.ph. 



1880. 



Boston. 
Gunnison, Col. 

Newton. 

Boston. 

Boston. 
New York, N. Y. 
Dublin, Ireland. 

Boston. 



Boston. 

Bangor, Me. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

*1891. 

Paris, France. 

Boston. 

Middletown Springs, Vt. 

Bost#n. 

Boston. 

*1889. 



Chicago, 111. 

Wollaston. 

Plymouth. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



'^ Deceased 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



31 



1881. 



1882. 



1883. 



William Parker Cooke, 
George Alfred Dennett, 
James Alfred Reilly, 
Edmond Rosenthal, 
Otis Franklin Smith, 



Dwight Moses Clapp, 
George Eubank, 
Edward Earl Hopkins, 



Elliot Bowdoin Bacheller, 
Edwin Carter Blaisdell, 
Frederic William Hill, 
Edward Albert Lowe, 
Samuel Sterrett Macfarlane, 
Myron William Smith, 
Joseph Ellsworth Waitt, 
George Arthur Williams, 

Charles Lincoln Abbott, 
Frederic William Bevington, 
Henry Parsons Cooke, 
Charles Percy Curtis, 
Arthur Crowell Gerry, 
George Henry Gerry, 
Charles Franklin McDonald, 
Ned Albert Stanley, 
Jere Edmund Stanton, m.d. 
Alfred Horace Tester, l.d.s. 



1885. 
Charles Henry Abbot, 
Edward Merrill Currier, m.d. 
Charles Eugene Estabrook, 
Thomas James Giblin, 
Henry Webster Gillett, 
Walter Harrison, l.d.s. 
AVilliam Henry Potter, A.n. (Harv.) 
James Shepherd, 

♦Deceased. 



1884. 



Boston. 
Boston. 
Boston. 
Liege, Belgium. 
Boston. 



Boston. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

Boston. 



Lowell. 

Portsmouth, N. H. 

London, England. 

Lowell. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

*1886. 

Boston. 

Liverpool, England. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Lawrence. 

Worcester. 

Rome, Italy. 

Lowell. 

Lowell. 

Boston. 

New Bedford. 

Boston. 

Tunbridge Wells, England. 

Berlin, Germany. 

Boston. 

Halifax, England. 

Boston. 

Newport, R. I. 

Brighton, England. 

Boston. 

Boston. 



32 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



1886. 



Lyman Fisher Bigelow, 

Waldo Elias Board man, 

William Thomas Borton, 

Frederick Bradley, 

Henry Michael Clifford, 

Isidor Fiirst, 

Leonard Nutter Howe, 

Frederic Milton Mayo, 

Wilhelm Leopold Olander, 

Charles Hutchins Taft, a.b. (Harv.) 

Henry Lauriston Upham, 



Boston. 

Boston. 

St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Newport, R. I. 

Boston. 

Hamburg, Germany. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Helsingfors, Finland. 

Cambridge. 

Boston. 



1887. 



Peter Crank, l.d.s. 
Carroll Ketcham Huntley, 
Leslie Maxwell, l.d.s. 
Edwin Leslie Shattuck, 
Frank Ellsworth Sprague, 
Henry James Stark, 
Edgar Fremont Stevens, 
Arthur Henry Stoddard, 
Charles Henry Veo, 
John Daniel Wilson, 
Harry Eugene Windsor, 
Thomas Weston Wood, a.m. 
Harvey Warner Woodberry, 
Charles Frederick Wright, l.d.s. 



Adelaide, So. Australia. 

Boston. 

Hastings, England. 

London, England. 

Nashua, N. H. 

*1889. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Lowell. 

Boston, 

Providence, R. I. 

Boston. 

Duluth, Minn. 

London, England. 



1888. 



George Pierce Geist, 
Frederick Payne Graves, 
Ellis Proctor Holmes, 
Henry Allen Kelley, 
Thomas George Read, l.d.s. 
Frederick Arnold Stevenson, 
Charles Bryant Titcomb, 



Fred. Anthony Arnold, 
Henry Jefcins Borton, 
Charles Poor Briggs, a.b.. 



1889. 



M.D. (Harv.), 



Frankfiirt am Main, Germany. 

Saco, Me. 

Boston. 

Portland, Me. 

London, England. 

Montreal, Canada. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Newport, R. I. 
Boston. 
Boston. 



" Deceased. 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



33 



William Frederick Gay, 

Paul Griinewald, 

Frank Irving Hammond, 

Frederick Sylvanus Hopkins, 

Daniel Albion Jones, 

William Russell Jones, 

William Lombardino, 

Patrick William Moriarty, 

William Curran O'Leary, 

Arthur Henry Osgood, a.b. (Harv.) 

Caleb Heath Shepard, 

Frederic Ervin Twitchell, 

Eugene Jakob Wetzel, 

James Robert White, 



Boston. 

Frankfiirt am Main, Germany. 

Providence, R. I. 

Boston. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New York, N. Y. 

Berlin, Germany. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Bath, Me. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

MUlhausen, Switzerland. 

No. Adams. 



1890. 

Sidney Roland Bartlett, s.b. 

Harry Oliver Bixby, 

Benjamin Howard Codman, 

Edwin Hartley Dixon, 

Arthur Warren Eldred, 

Charles Manning Keep, m.d. (Harv.) 

Charles Elmer Luce, 

Kotai Masuda, 

Arthur Judson Oldham, 

Hermann Paal, 

Charles Ernest Perkins, 

Oscar Pulvermacher, 

Edward Rolfe, 

Elbridge Abbott Shorey, 

Frank Turner Taylor, 



Boston. 

No. Cambridge. 

Boston. 

New York, N. Y. 

Worcester. 

Boston. 

Stuttgart, Germany. 

Boston. 

Wellesley Hills. 

Osnabriick, Germany. 

Brockton. 

Berlin, Germany. 

Boston. 

Dover, N. H. 

Boston. 



1891. 

Paul Boitel, Bale, Switzerland. 

Georges Antoine Brouillet, Boston. 

Alexander Humboldt Fisher, Boston. 

Adin Albert Goldsmith, d.d.s. (Univ. of Penn.), London, England. 

Amos Irving Hadley, New Bedford. 

George Meads Holden, Lowell. 

Shimpei Nobutsune Isawa, Tokio, Japan. 

George Martin, d.d.s. (Univ. of California), Berlin, Ger. 



34 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 

Clarence Moore Noble, Providence, R. I. 

Hugh Owen, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Joseph Totten Paul, Boston. 

George Barnum Perry, Chicago, 111. 
William Fuller Sharp, d.d.s. (Univ. of California), San Francisco, Cal. 

Fred Homer Woodcock, London, England. 

1892. 

Edward Stanley Bryant, Brockton. 

Allen Stanley Burnham, Gloucester. 

Charles Edward Bugbee Chase, Everett. 

Willard Eben Curtice, Allston. 

Kirk Addison Davenport, d.d.s. (Univ. of Penn.), Paris, France. 

Ernest Frederick Gabell, Brighton, England. 

Theodore Hallett, Yarmouth. 

Herbert Frederic Hill, * Lincoln, England. 

Albert Edward Hulme, Andover. 

Richard Carl Moritz, Boston. 

Harry Snow Parsons, m.d. Boston. 

Henry Robmson Peach, Marblehead. 

Henry Edward Rose, Birmingham, England. 

Nathan Prindle Wyllie, Boston. 

1893. 

Charles Oscar Cummings, a.b. Medford. 

Frank Roberts Dickerman, Taunton. 

George William Field, London, England. 

George Rufus Gray, d.d.s. Worcester. 

Joseph Geiger Grove, Delaware, Ohio. 

Max Hanau, Worms am Rhein, Germany. 

Arthur John Lamere, Lowell. 

Richard Pearson, m.b., b.s. (Durham Univ.) London, England. 

Edward Melville Quinby, l.d.s., m.r.c.s. Liverpool, England. 

Charles Hudson Quirk, m.d. (Harv.) Buenos Aires, Argentine Rep. 

Frederick King Richardson, Duluth, Minn. 

William Bertram Sansom, l.d.s. London, England. 

John Joseph Smith, Warren, R. I. 

Frank Merrett Wilkinson, London, England. 



EXAMINATION PAPERS. 

{June Examination, 1893.) 

First Year's Studies. 

ANATOMY. —Professor Dwight. 

1. Describe the superior surface of the ethmoid. 

2. What are the chief features of the posterior fossa of the skull? 

3. How does the first rib differ from one of the middle ribs? 

4. How to distinguish the upper and lower ends of the fibula? 

5. What muscles and ligaments are attached to the tuberosity of the 
ischium? 

6. How is the extensor communis digitorum manus inserted? 

7. Origin, course, and insertion of peroneus longus. 

8. What features does the posterior surface of the liver present? 

9. What is the shape of the cricoid cartilage? What articulates with it? 

10. What constitutes the root of the lung? 

11. Origin, course, and termination of the vas deferens. 

12. Where is the basilar artery? How does it arise? How does it end? 

13. What veins empty into the inferior vena cava? 

14. What nerves supply the larynx? Where do they arise? What is 
their course? 

15. Origin and termination of the great splanchnic nerve. 

16. Give the distribution of the anterior crural nerve. 



PHYSIOLOGY. — Professor Bowditch. 

[Number the answers to the questions without copying the questions themselves. Do 
not number the pa^es of the book. Answer the questions in order, writing on each 
page in succession.] 

1. Why is hunger temporarily relieved by swallowing indigestible 
substances? 

2. What is the nutritive value of alcohol? 

3. To what extent may the skin act as an absorbing organ? 

4. Explain the importance of the lime salts in the coagulation of the 
blood. 

5. How may the relative proportions of the blood globules and the blood 
plasma be determined? 



36 EXAMINATION PAPERS. 

6. What are the causes of the normal variations in the rate of the heart 
beat? 

7. Why does not the '* secondary" muscular contraction throw light 
on the nature of voluntary contraction? 

8. What is the function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve? 

9. Why do dogs breathe rapidly in warm weather? 

10. Why may section of a sensitive nerve cause apparent motor paralysis ? 

11. What is meant by cerebral localization? Illustrate. 

12. What is the respiratory quotient, and what is its significance? 



GENERAL CHEMISTRY. — Professor Hills. 

1. Dissolve (a) sodic carbonate in water; (b) sodic carbonate in dilute 
hydrochloric acid. In what respects do the two processes differ from 
each other? How can you show that there is a difference? 

2. State the law of conservation of mass. 

3. What is the unit to which molecular weights are referred? 

4. Write equations illustrating the action of an acid on (a) a metal; 
(5) a metallic oxide ; (c) a metallic hydrate. 

5. What information does the equation CH^ + 2 0^ = COj+ 2H3O 
give in regard to the process it represents? 

6. What are the causes of the temporary and permanent hardness of 
water? How may the two kinds of water be made soft? 

7. What are the sources of carbon dioxide? What is the amount of 
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere normally? 

8. Describe TWO. H2SO4; J^; P4. 

9. Describe two. Argentic nitrate; mercuric chloride; tartar emetic. 
What is the chemical name of tartar emetic? 

10. Color and solubility (in water) of lithic carbonate, magnesic 
carbonate, zincic oxide, zincic sulphate, potassic permanganate, potassic 
dichromate, mercuric iodide, chromic anhydride, ferric chloride, ferrous 
sulphate. 



MEDICAL CHEMISTRY.— Professor Hills. 

1. Define the following terms, illustrating your definitions by means of 
chemical formulae : (a) homologous series ; (b) isomerism ; (c) amine ; 
(c?) amido-acid; (e) phenol. 

2. What is the average quanld'ty of urine passed in twenty-four hour& 
by a healthy male adult? By a child seven years of age? How does the 
quantity of urine secreted during the day compare with that secreted 
during the night, in health? 

3. What are the important chemical properties of urea? Name some 
of the probable antecedents of urea in the body. 



EXAMINATION PAPERS. 37 

4. What is the chief urinary pigment? From what is it derived? 
Name the intermediate substances formed in the conversion. 

5, 6. {This counts as two questions.) Describe the nitric acid test for 
albumin in the urine. What precautions must be observed in performing 
this test? What are the possible fallacies, and how may any error arising 
therefrom be avoided? 

7. What substances may occur, in the sediment of urine, in the form 
of dumb-bells? How may they be distinguished? How distinguish acid 
sodic urate and acid calcic phosphate? 

8. Occurrence of cholesterin in the body? What are its microscopic 
characters ? 

9. What different classes of transformations are included under the 
general term *' fermentation"? 

10. What are ptomaines? To what is their formation attributed? 
Describe their general characteristics. 



Second Year's Studies. 

DENTAL PATHOLOGY. — Professor Brackett. 

1. Define pathological state. 

2. Pyorrhoea alveolaris, 

3. Etiology of undue hemorrhage following extraction. 

4. The prognosis of osteoma. 

5. General definition of predisposing cause of disease, with illustrations. 

6. Etiology of dental caries. 

7. Define hypertrophy ; give illustrations with etiology in each case. 

8. The more frequent antral affections and their etiology. 

9. The semiology of dying pulp. 

10. Epulis. 

11. What pathological states precede suppuration? 

12. How do you judge of the advisability of using conservative treat- 
ment of the dental pulp when exposed? 

13. Diagnosis of ranula. 

14. Etiology of gum recession. 

15. Characteristics of teeth in which pulp calcifications are most likely 
to occur. 

16. Neuralgia. 

17. Simple enumeration, without description, of the diseases to which 
bone is subject. 

18. What causes the sensitiveness of dentine? 

19. Give a comprehensive definition of abscess. 

20. Of the permanent teeth, which are the most frequently attacked by 
caries, and why? 



38 EXAMINATION PAPERS. 

MATERIA MEDICA. —Assistant Professor Briggs. 

1. Write a prescription for an ounce mixture of tannic acid, glycerine, 
and pepermint water. 

2. Name and describe an astringent. 

8. Give the law of the application of acids to secreting glands. 

4. Contraindications for the use of morphine. 

5. Name four antipyretics and give indications for their use? 

6. Contrast the action of ether and chloroform. 

7. Name and describe one antiseptic. 

8. Indications for the use of gutta-percha and cement filling. 

9. Belladona. 
10. Cafeeine. 



SURGICAL PATHOLOGY. — Dr. Monks. 

1. What is shock, and what is reaction? What are some of the 
ircumstances which may modify the severity of shock? 

2. What are some of the differences between a chancroid (that is, 
'a soft chancre") and a true chancre (that is, the initial lesion of 
yphilis)? Mention some of the unusual ways in which syphilis has been 
aid to be acquired. 

3. Mention some of the different varieties of tumors. 

4. Describe the terminations of ostitis. 

5. Describe a case of simple erysipelas. 

6. Give an outline of the process which takes place in the development 
of acute inflammation of the soft parts. 



ORAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. —Dr. J. E. Stanton. 

1. Describe the development of the jaws. 

2. Give a description of and the origin of the primary germinal layers, 
and what they ultimately become in adult life. 

3. Describe calcification, and how the insoluble salts of lime act 
associated with organic compounds. 

4. How do the additional molars find room in the lower jaw? 

5. To what is the sensitiveness of normal dentine due? 

6. Describe the development and eruption of a permanent tooth, and 
how the roots of a temporary tooth are absorbed. 

7. Give a description of the teeth and jaws at birth. 

8. Give a minute description of the pulp and dental periostrum. 

9. Describe carefully the dental tubuli and their contents. 

10. What is the present classification of bacteria? How do they 
germinate, and what is the resistance of spores? 



EXAMINATION PAPERS. 39 



CROWN AND BRIDGE.— Dr. W. P. Cook. 

1. Give the names of the various dental crowns and bridges. 

2. Describe the insertion of a wood pivot crown. 

3. Describe the Bonwill, Logan, and How crowns. 

4. Describe a method of inserting a banded Logan. When and why 
use such a crown? 

5. Describe the making of a Stoddard croAvn. What are its advantages ? 

6. Describe the Buttner system. 

7. Describe the making and insertion of a Richmond porcelain face 
crown. 

8. Describe the making and insertion of a removable crown. Richmond 
preferred. 

9. Describe the E. Parmley Brown system of crown and bridge work. 

10. Describe : (1) A Genese crown. (2) A removable pin crown. 
(3) Give their good points. 

11. Would you ever crown a fractured root? If so, how? Illustrate by 
description of a molar. 

12. Describe the Howland, Weston, and New Richmond crowns. 

13. Describe the Low system. 

14. Describe a method of restoring the tip of a fractured central incisor. 

15. Describe : (1) A bar bridge. (2) A removable bridge. 

16. Describe a method of repairing a fractured incisor on a bridge case 
without removal of the bridge. 

17. How would you insert a superior lateral incisor, the root having 
been extracted, and the adjoining central and cuspid being free from 
decay? 

18. When would you use amalgam, gold-foil, gutta-percha, cement, in 
crown work? 

19. Describe a method of inserting a crown where vulcanite is used. 

20. Give the advantages and disadvantages of: (1) Stationary bridge 
work. (2) Removable bridge work. 

Illustrate the above questions by simple drawings. 



Third Year's Studies. 

MECHANICAL DENTISTRY. —Professor Chandler. 

1. What are the three ingredients composing the body of dental 
porcelain, exclusive of coloring matter? 

2. What are the materials used in coloring porcelain teeth? 

3. Describe celluloid, from the cotton to the dental plate. 

4. Describe vulcanite, from the tree to the dental plate. 

5. What are the materials besides rubber that go to the production of 
vulcanite ? 



40 EXAMINATION PAPERS. 

6. How prepare an 18 kt. plate from pure gold? 

7. What are the usual fluxes in refining gold, and the purposes for 
which they are used? 

8. What is meant by biscuiting and the object of it? 

9. Give a brief history of the invention of continuous gum work. 

10. Describe the making of a set of teeth by this method. 

11. Describe a siphon and tell what makes it act. 

12. Why do we use a blow-pipe in soldering? 

13. Why use a flux? 

14. Aluminium. What is it, and whence obtained? 

15. The different methods of using it in dentistry? 



SURGERY.— Professor Cheever. 

1. Alveolar abscess : causes, course, treatment. 

2. Cyst of the antrum : appearances, treatment. 

3. Sinuses of the jaws : causes, results, treatment. 

4. Acute glossitis : appearances, treatment. 



OPERATIVE DENTISTRY. — Professor Fillebrown. 

1. (a) What are the names of each class of cavities as used for record? 

(b) What are tlie essential qualities of a cavity for holding a metallic 
filling? (c) What conditions are best suited for gold, amalgam, cement, 
gutta percha? 

2. What are the good and the objectionable qualities of gold as a 
filling, also of amalgam, cement, and gutta-percha? 

3. What is the treatment for cure of alveolar abscess? 

4. (a) What is phagedenic pericementitis? (b) Describe treatment. 

(c) What is the principal cause of the disease and the most essential part 
of the treatment? 

5. What are the conditions needed in the operator for successful 
extraction of teeth? (a) What important precaution to be observed? 
(S) What conditions forbid extraction? (c) What are the characteristics 
of teeth which are difficult to extract? (d) What are the indications for 
extraction? (e) Under what circumstances should temporary teeth be 
extracted, and when not? (/) What conditions of the patient require 
caution, and treatment? (g) What accidents are likely to occur? 
(h) Name remedies for hemorrhage and describe their application. 

6. Describe methods for packing gold for fillings. 

7. (a) What conditions contra-indicate anaesthesia or require cau- 
tion? (b) What is tlie mode if death from gas, ether, and chloroform? 
(c) Describe means of resuscitation when respiration fails? 



EXAMINATION PAPERS. 41 

8. What condition of the cavity is essential to obtain the best effects of 
obtundents ? 

9. Describe the preparation of teeth for approach to proximal cavities : 
(a) In front teeth, upper and under? (6) In back teeth? 

• 10. Describe methods of temporary and permanent separation of teeth. 



OKTHODONTIA. — Dr. E. H. Smith. 

1. What evils are associated with irregularities of the teeth? 

2. What influence has heredity on irregularities of the teeth, and what 
on variability of form, and mention other causes? 

3. What danger attends the process of widening the alveolar arch, and 
how prevented? 

4. Describe devices for obtaining resistance while moving bicuspids 
and cuspids posteriorly ; the advantage and disadvantage of each. 

5. What do you understand by torsion of the teeth? How corrected 
and devices for so doing? 

6. What is prognathism and its cause ; and what are the devices for its 
correction? 

7. Cite a case where you would extract the superior permanent lateral 
and one where you would extract the permanent cuspid in a condition of 
irregularity of the anterior teeth. 

8. Describe cases of irregularity of teeth corrected by grinding and 
polishing. 

9. What is a Magill band? When and where used? 

10. Describe the different retaining devices. Mention the most efficient, 
and explain Dr. Farrar's system of regulating.